Armed Forces Movement / Movimento das Forças Armadas
- (MFA)The organization of career military who overthrew the Estado Novo in a virtually bloodless military coup or pronunciamento generating the Revolution of 25 April 1974. This organization began as a clandestine group of junior career officers, largely from the army, but later including air force and navy officers, who had a series of secret meetings in Évora and other cities beginning in the summer and fall of 1973. The general grievances of these officers, who tended to be junior officers in their thirties and forties with the ranks of lieutenant, captain, and major, centered on the colonial wars in Portugal's African Empire. By 1973, these conflicts were more than a decade old, and in two of the wars, namely Guinea- Bissau and Mozambique, the Portuguese forces were taking heavy losses and losing ground. The catalyst for organizing a formal protest at first was not political but professional and corporate: a July 1973 law passed by the Marcello Caetano government that responded to a shortage of officer candidates in the African wars by lowering the professional qualifications for officer candidates for militia officers, something deeply resented by the career officers. The MFA organized the military coup of 1974 that met little resistance.
Historical dictionary of Portugal 3rd ed.. by Douglas L. Wheeler . 2014.
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